Moscow - Saint Petersburg Railway
Russia's Most Popular Railway
I have complete confidence that railways are necessary for Russia; one can even say that they were invented for Russia in a greater degree than for any other European country, that Russian climate and its space make them particularly precious for our Homeland
P. P. Melnikov,
the first Minister of Railway Transport of the Russian Empire
The Moscow - Saint Petersburg Railway is the second oldest railway in Russia after a short line connecting Saint Petersburg and Tsarskoe Selo. The construction of a railtrack on this route was determined by vital economic problems and the logic of the country’s history itself as Moscow and Saint Petersburg are two capitals, two poles of Russia’s destiny, two cities connected by a great many people’s life paths. The idea of a railway communication between Moscow and Saint Petersburg was inevitable although it gave rise to a prolonged controversy, with some reactionary officials predicting social upheaval if the masses were allowed to travel. It was decided that only the affluent would be allowed to use the line and every passenger was to be subjected to strict passport and police control.
On 1 February 1842 Nicholas I of Russia issued a decree ordering the construction of a new Railway. As Nicholas I commented this historical step: “We suffer from excessive distances. And I look at the gap decrease between Saint Petersburg and Moscow as a matter of great national importance. And I hope that our offsprings will justify my decision”.
The Railway was officially opened on 1 November 1851, when the first “all-people's” train from Saint Petersburg to Moscow was put on rails. The “Saint Petersburg Vedomosty” newspaper celebrated this crucial event with the following inspiring news: “1st day of November will always be a memorable day for the whole Russia: this day... the opening of a new Railway that connected both our capitals - the head and the heart of Russia - took place”.
The new Moscow - Saint Petersburg Railway received its name after Nicholas I and was known as the Nikolaevskaya Railway from 1855 to 1923, when it was renamed as Oktiabrskaya after the Great October Socialist Revolution.
There is a very interesting and popular myth connected with the history of the Nikolaevskaya Railway construction. For many years the line was completely straight apart from a 17km (11miles) bend between Okulovka and Malaya Vishera, near the city of Novgorod. This was the subject of an urban legend that when planning the project, Tsar Nicholas I, who was reputedly exasperated by the bickering of officials arguing over the route, selected the route by taking a ruler and drawing a straight line between the two cities on a map, accidentally drew around his own finger on the ruler. The planners were supposedly too afraid to point out the error and constructed the line with the bend.
In reality, the Moscow - Saint Petersburg Railway was built without the curve. But there was a steep gradient at this location that caused severe problems for steam locomotives. Trains heading to St Petersburg would pick up so much speed that they could not stop at the next station, while those heading for Moscow could not get up the hill without the assistance of four locomotives. In order not to use additional locomotives, the Verebinsky bypass was constructed in 1877.
During its early years trains from Moscow to St. Petersburg ran at low speed of 40 km/h and the whole travel, together with stops, took 19 hours. Since then the train speed began to increase gradually and the travel time to decrease. In 1931 the first deluxe train in the USSR - the “Red Arrow” - began to cruise between two capitals covering the distance between Moscow and Saint Petersburg in 10 hours. It interrupted its regular service only between 1941 and 1943 during the Siege of Leningrad.
Today many travelers all over the world choose this itinerary as it provides the possibility to visit all major highlights of both capitals with great comfort. Moscow usually attracts tourists by its majestic Red Square with the Kremlin and colorful St. Basil's Cathedral, by famous Tretyakov Gallery and The Bolshoi Theater, while Saint Petersburg - a city of canals and cathedrals, palaces and terraces - is considered to be unmatched in its splendor with its incredibly beautiful Catherine's Palace and Peterhof, world-famous Hermitage, Peter and Paul Fortress, Savior on Blood and St. Isaac Cathedral, and other outstanding sights. During the high travel season these places are often booked out and have huge queues outside, so we recommend our clients to book excursions in Moscow & St. Petersburg in advance. It can be done with great convenience on our website. Browse day tours
And today with modern high-speed Sapsan trains you are able to reach your destination in just four hours! Although it only travels at a maximum speed of 250 kilometers per hour (155 miles per hour) at present, when new high speed rail lines are built between St. Petersburg, Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod, new Sapsan trains will be able to increase their speed up to 400 kilometers per hour while reducing the travel time to no more that 2,5 hours.
Interesting Facts about Moscow - St. Petersburg Railway:
1. The distance from Moscow to Saint Petersburg is 649.7 km (403.7 miles).
2. In 1962 the deep red color of the “Red Arrow” was officially adopted.
3. In 2001 the Verebinsky bypass was straightened out, reducing the length of the line by 5 km (3.1 miles), that allowed to cut the travel time for high-speed trains.
4. High-speed Sapsan train from Moscow to Saint Petersburg was brought into service in December 2009.
5. In 2012 passenger traffic was equal to 22,8 mln people for long-distance traffic and to 126,7 mln people for suburban traffic.
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